A growing number of countries and territories around the world are forcing people, often in specific sectors, to be vaccinated against COVID-19.
Here is a roundup:
Mandatory in Tajikistan, Vatican
Tajikistan and the Vatican are among the rare countries imposing vaccinations on all adults.
In ex-Soviet Tajikistan the official news agency has published a government decree obliging all over 18s to be vaccinated, without giving further details.
In the Vatican, the world’s smallest state, vaccinations were made obligatory for residents and workers in February, with those refusing liable to be sacked.
Several countries or territories have imposed vaccinations on certain sections of the population.
Italian doctors and health workers in the public and private sector must get vaccinated or face being banned from working directly with patients.
A group of 300 Italian health workers have gone to court to try to get the obligation overturned and a hearing is scheduled on July 14.
On June 16 the British government announced all care home staff in England will need to be fully vaccinated.
If approved by parliament, the new legislation means anyone working in a care home must have two doses of a vaccine from October unless they have a medical exemption.
The rules will apply to all workers employed directly by the care home, as well as to agency workers and volunteers.
President Vladimir Putin is against mandatory vaccinations nationwide.
The mayor of Moscow Sergei Sobyanin ordered mandatory jabs for residents of the Russian capital working in the service industry on June 16.
Some 60 percent of all service industry workers in Moscow—just over two million people—were ordered to be fully vaccinated by August 15.
Since then other localities have taken similar measures, including badly-hit Saint Petersburg.
Kazakhstan on July 1 ordered mandatory coronavirus vaccinations for a wide range of workers who come into contact with others. Those who refuse will be restricted from working face-to-face with other people.
The city of San Francisco has announced it will require all municipal employees to be vaccinated or they could face penalties up to and including dismissal.
The new rule will not take effect until the vaccines have received full approval from the US Food and Drug Administration, which has so far given the green light for their use on an emergency basis due to the pandemic.
More than 150 employees at the Houston Methodist Hospital in Texas have already been fired or resigned after failing to comply with orders to get a shot.
French Health Minister Olivier Veran has said that mandatory vaccinations are not yet necessary for all. But the government is working on a draft law to force health workers to be jabbed.
In a number of places, while there is no formal requirement for vaccination, restrictions for the non-vaccinated mean there is a de facto obligation.
Riyadh has decided that anyone using public transport or entering a government or private establishment or sports venue must be vaccinated from August 1.
Only vaccinated employees in the public and private sector can enter their workplaces.
The southern Pakistani province of Balochistan on July 1 implemented a ban on unvaccinated people entering government offices, public parks, shopping malls and public transport.
The province of Sindh says it will refuse to pay government employees who have not been vaccinated from July, and neighbouring Punjab has said it will block the mobile phones of people refusing to get jabs.